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how to print the GREEK CAPITAL LETTER delta under utf-8 encoding


I lookup the utf-8 form of delta from the link.
http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/0394/index.htm

and then I want to print it in the python ( I work under windows)

#!/usr/bin/python
#coding=utf-8

print "\xce\x94"

but the result is not the 'delta' but an unknown character.

schrieb:

> I lookup the utf-8 form of delta from the link.
> http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/0394/index.htm

> and then I want to print it in the python ( I work under windows)

> #!/usr/bin/python
> #coding=utf-8

> print "\xce\x94"

> but the result is not the 'delta' but an unknown character.

I assume you print to the terminal (cmd.exe). This cannot work;
the terminal (usually) does not interpret the characters in UTF-8.
Instead, you should print a Unicode string, e.g.

print u"\N{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER DELTA}"

or

print u'\u0394'

This should work as long as your terminal supports printing
the letter at all.

Regards,
Martin

On 5 29 , 1 34 , "Martin v. Lo"wis" <mar@v.loewis.de> wrote:

yes, it could print to the terminal(cmd.exe), but when I write these
string to file. I got the follow error:

  File "E:\Tools\filegen\filegen.py", line 212, in write
    self.file.write(data)
UnicodeEncodeError: 'ascii' codec can't encode character u'\u0394' in
position 0
: ordinal not in range(128)

but other text, in which include "chinese characters" got from
os.listdir(...),  are written to the file OK. why?

> yes, it could print to the terminal(cmd.exe), but when I write these
> string to file. I got the follow error:

>   File "E:\Tools\filegen\filegen.py", line 212, in write
>     self.file.write(data)
> UnicodeEncodeError: 'ascii' codec can't encode character u'\u0394' in
> position 0
> : ordinal not in range(128)

Yes, when writing to a file, you need to define an encoding, e.g.

self.file.write(data.encode("utf-8"))

You can use codecs.open() instead of open(),
so that you can just use self.file.write(data)

Alternatively, you can find out what sys.stdout.encoding is,
and use that when encoding data for the terminal (falling back
to "utf-8" when .encoding is not available on the file).

> but other text, in which include "chinese characters" got from
> os.listdir(...),  are written to the file OK. why?

Your version of Windows uses a code page that supports Chinese
characters in the byte-oriented character set. These are normally
encoded using the "mbcs" encoding (except that the terminal likely
uses a different encoding). So if you use "mbcs" instead of "utf-8",
you might be able to read the text as well.

Regards,
Martin

On 5 29 , 3 05 , "Martin v. Lo"wis" <mar@v.loewis.de> wrote:

Thanks a lot!
I want to just use the utf-8. how could I convert my 'mbcs' encoding
to the utf-8 and write it to the file?
I have replaced the open() to codecs.open()

but it still can not decode the 'mbcs', the error is as follow:

  File "E:\Tools\filegen\filegen.py", line 213, in write
    self.file.write(data)
  File "C:\Python25\lib\codecs.py", line 638, in write
    return self.writer.write(data)
  File "C:\Python25\lib\codecs.py", line 303, in write
    data, consumed = self.encode(object, self.errors)
UnicodeDecodeError: 'ascii' codec can't decode byte 0xcc in position
32: ordinal
 not in range(128)

En Tue, 29 May 2007 04:24:15 -0300,  
<kelvin.@gmail.com> escribi:

Just to provide an example of what MvL already said:

py> line = u"Delta=\u0394"
py> f = open("data.txt","w")
py> f.write(line.encode("utf8"))
py> f.close()
py> print repr(open("data.txt").read())
'Delta=\xce\x94'

py> import codecs
py> f = codecs.open("data2.txt","w","utf8")
py> f.write(line)
py> f.close()
py> print repr(open("data2.txt").read())
'Delta=\xce\x94'

--
Gabriel Genellina

tis 2007-05-29 klockan 09:05 +0200 skrev "Martin v. Lo"wis":

> Yes, when writing to a file, you need to define an encoding, e.g.

> self.file.write(data.encode("utf-8"))

> You can use codecs.open() instead of open(),
> so that you can just use self.file.write(data)

If I for some reason can't open the object myself or needs encoding on
other file-like objects, I think the following wrapper function is of
use (it essentially does what codecs.open() does but takes a file-object
instead of a filename):

def filewrapper(f, encoding=None, errors='strict'):
    if encoding is None:
        return f

    info = codecs.lookup(encoding)
    srw = codecs.StreamReaderWriter(f, info.streamreader,
                                    info.streamwriter, errors)
    # Add attributes to simplify introspection
    srw.encoding = encoding
    return srw

I find this especially useful for changing how stdout and friends does
it's encoding, e.g:

>>> sys.stdout = filewrapper(sys.stdout, 'utf-8')
>>> print u" \N{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER DELTA}"

Useful if you don't want to append .encode() to everything you print out
that potentially can contain non-ascii letters.

/Ragnar

En Tue, 29 May 2007 15:16:52 -0300, Ragnar Ouchterlony  
<rag@lysator.liu.se> escribi:

Isn't the same as codecs.EncodedFile?

--
Gabriel Genellina

tis 2007-05-29 klockan 16:08 -0300 skrev Gabriel Genellina:

> >>>> sys.stdout = filewrapper(sys.stdout, 'utf-8')
> >>>> print u" \N{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER DELTA}"

> > Useful if you don't want to append .encode() to everything you print out
> > that potentially can contain non-ascii letters.

> Isn't the same as codecs.EncodedFile?

No, codecs.EncodedFile() doesn't do exactly the same.

If I understand it correctly, EncodedFile() takes a byte stream as input
and produces another bytestream (with possibly different encoding) as
output in both read and write.

My function (as well as codecs.open()) decodes a byte stream for read
and produces a unicode object or encodes a unicode object for write and
produces a byte stream.

At least, I were unable to create the same behaviour as my filewrapper()
using EncodedFile(). If you are able to do that, I'm interested in how
you do it.

/Ragnar

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